Sperms are produced in the seminiferous tubules of the testes, from where they move to be matured and stored in the epididymis .This process takes approximately three months to complete .During sexual intercourse the sperms leave the epididymis and travel through the vas deferens where they are mixed with fluid secreted from various glands. This mixture of sperm and seminal fluid (semen ) is then deposited in the vagina of the female partner following ejaculation.
Causes of male infertility can be divided into two categories; physical abnormalities of the male reproductive tract,such as epididymal or vas obstruction or impaired sperm production and secondly ,abnormalities of the sperm themselves. However in most cases of male infertility the cause is unknown.
To determine male fertility we must carry out a semen analysis where we test the number, activity and shape of the sperm .A normal assessment should show a sperm count of more than 15 million sperm per milliliter with at least 32% of the sperm actively moving and more than 4% of the sperm of normal shape .They must be capable of moving through the female genital tract to reach the fallopian tube where the egg is fertilized, and so must survive for a period of 24-48 hours.
Common male infertility problems are due to the following :